Animal Testing Alternatives - Searching the Literature

Key Databases

Some databases useful for searching topics within animal testing alternatives.

Why search for alternatives?

The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations require principal investigators to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals and provide a written narrative of the methods used and sources consulted to determine the availability of alternatives, including refinements, reductions, and replacements.


The Three Rs

Substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Minimize number of animals used.
Use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.

"...the performance of a database search remains the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures." The database search narrative must, at a minimum, include:

  • Names of the databases/web sites searched
  • Date the search was performed
  • Period covered by the search
  • Key words and/or the search strategy used

Policy #12: Consideration of Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures
From the USDA Animal Care Manual

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Animal Testing Alternatives LibGuide by University of Mississippi Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.